When we get beyond pure logic and look at statistics or legal standards of proof beyond a reasonable doubt, we get into Type 1 and Type 2 errors.

Here's an example from politics. The inability to prove fraud to a legal standard does not mean the election was fair:

https://caleb-mars.medium.com/a-statistical-framework-for-evaluating-the-fair-election-hypothesis-8d9f5908f1ad .

For an example from law, a verdict of not-guilty does not mean innocent. There are those found not guilty even though they are.

In such situations, the binary logic of Fig 1 is not an accurate model.

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